Neurosurgery is that branch of medicine dealing with surgical treatment of diseases in the brain and spinal cord. This includes surgery for patients with tumours of the brain and spinal cord, surgery for disorders of the blood vessels of the brain like aneurysms, surgery for all types of strokes including putaminal haematoma, surgery for spinal problems like disc prolapse, neurological problems in children like brain tumours, congenital defects like meningocoel and hydrocephalus etc. Nowadays neurosurgery has advanced so much and has developed subspecialties like pediatric neurosurgery, spinal surgery, functional neurosurgery etc.
Functional neurosurgery is concerned with the treatment of conditions where central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) physiology (normal function) is altered but the anatomy may or may not be normal. Examples of conditions treated by functional neurosurgery are chronic pain (including cancer pain and failed back surgery syndrome), spasticity, movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, dystonia, tremor etc), psychiatric conditions and epilepsy etc. Recently addiction is being added as an indication.